Module 5: Other Manifestations of Modern Slavery

Fall 2018 - Spring 2019

This module interrogates a range of exploitative practices (typically not identified as modern slavery) that might meet the definition of human trafficking. Students will have the resources to analyze examples from sports, detention practices, marital arrangements, medical procedures, orphanages, and kidnapping for ransom.

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Course materials

Module Materials

Learning Objectives

  1. Explore practices that may or may not be conceptualized as human trafficking including examples from sports, detention practices, marital arrangements, medical treatments (related to removal and sale of organs), etc.

  2. Analyze different kinds of responses to these exploitative practices.

 

Discussion Questions

  1. Taking various types of exploitative practices, do you believe each meets the definition of trafficking in persons? Why or why not? What more would you want to know about specific circumstances?

  2. What conditions (i.e., economic, migration status, cultural, gender norms, etc.) exacerbate one’s vulnerability to be trapped in these kinds of exploitation?

  3. How does the fact that certain exploitative practices may or may not be considered human trafficking affect whether they are addressed?

Primary Resources

Survivor Stories

 

This is the story of human trafficking victim-turned-survivor that evolve during the succession of the Modules. It will elaborate on some examples of real life experiences.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2]

Valencia

Organ Transplants – Transplant Tourism

 

This CBS news article describes the complications surrounding the kidney trade on the black market.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Michelle Castillo. “Ethical dilemmas surround those willing to sell, buy kidneys on the black market.” CBS News. CBS News.com, November 1, 2013. Web.

Human trafficking: exposing the brutal organ trade

This article discusses the human trafficking involved in the organ trade business worldwide.  [TAGS: learning objective 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Nancy Scheper-Hughes. “Human trafficking: exposing the brutal organ trade.” New Internationalist, May 1, 2014. Web.

Sports

Living the Dream? Human Trafficking, the Other Organized Crime Problem in Sports

This short post on the site The Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime, explains how some soccer players in FIFA are actually victims of human trafficking because they are illegally transported and in debt bondage due to organized crime. Available in English and Spanish (scroll halfway down the webpage.)  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3] 

“Living the Dream? Human Trafficking, the Other Organized Crime Problem in Sports.” The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.  Global Initiative 2018, April 27, 2015.  Web.

Marriage

 

Re-evaluating Palermo: The case of Burmese woman as Chinese brides

This study explores the trafficking of Burmese women to be Chinese brides and addresses the need for the Palermo Protocol to expand its definition of human trafficking.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Laura K Hackney.  “Re-evaluating Palermo: The case of Burmese women as Chinese brides.”  Anti-Trafficking Review, Issue 4, 2015.  pp. 98—119.  Web.

Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Child marriage

This UNICEF article and embedded 2:08 minute video titled "No Time to Lose: Child Marriage" provides an overview of the practice, root causes, and reasons it needs to be addressed.  [TAGS: learning objective 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3] 

“Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Child marriage.” UNICEF for every child.  UNICEF.  Web.

Orphans [but not really]

 

The ‘orphan’ I adopted from Uganda already had a family

This CNN video and article document how poverty-stricken families around the world may be tricked into giving their kids up for adoption in exchange for money. Watch the embedded 10:34 minute video titled CNN uncovers what could be a trafficking scheme[TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Jessica Davis.  “The ‘orphan’ I adopted from Uganda already had a family.”  CNN Opinion.  Cable News Network, October 13, 2017.  Web.

CRS: Changing the Way We Care

Changing the Way We Care℠ is a global movement through which Catholic Relief Services partners with Lumos and Maestral to keep children with their families. It is designed to promote family-based care and to change the way the world cares for children.  [TAGS: learning objective 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3] 

Changing the Way We Care, 2018.  Web.

Ransom

 

Trafficking in Persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol

This article discusses the practice of kidnapping people for ransom in Northeast Africa as an example of human trafficking.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 5, 7]

Mogos O Brhane. “Trafficking in Persons for Ransom and the Need to Expand the Interpretation of Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol.”  Anti-Trafficking Review 4, 2015.  pp. 120-141.  Web.

Prisons and Detention

 

American Slavery, Reinvented

This article explores the complexity of labor in a maximum security prison, Angola Prison in Louisiana, which used to be a slave plantation.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Whitney Benns.  “American Slavery, Reinvented.”  The Atlantic.  TheAtlantic.com, Sept. 21, 2015.  Web.

Forced Labor in US Detention Centers

In this post, the author addresses the labor exploitation/trafficking of immigrant detainees in U.S. detention centers.  [TAGS: learning objective 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3] 

Sarah Pierce.  “Forced Labor in U.S. Detention Centers.”  Human Trafficking Search.  Human Trafficking Search 2018, 2015.  Web.

Class action suit: Immigrants held in Aurora required to work for $1 a day, threatened with solitary if refused

This Denver Post article describes a lawsuit against a Colorado immigration detention center for engaging in forced labor practices.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3] 

Kirk Mitchell. “Class action suit: Immigrants held in Aurora required to work for $1 a day, threatened with solitary if refused.” The Denver Post. Digital First Media, March 2, 2017.  Web.

 

Child Domestic Workers

 

Painful plight of Haiti's 'restavec' children

Follow the story of nine-year-old Sende Sencil, a restavec. The United Nations condemns restavec as a "modern form of slavery" where children are forced to serve the families they have been sent to by doing domestic work.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Elizabeth Cohen.  “Painful plight of Haiti's 'restavec' children.”  CNN.  Cable News Network, January 29, 2010.  Web.

How traffickers exploit children in Haiti's orphanages 

This article explains Haiti’s orphanage crisis and how it relates to human trafficking and includes several embedded videos.  Author: Lisa Cohen.  Source: CNN.  Published:  March 2, 2018.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Lisa Cohen.  “How traffickers exploit children in Haiti's orphanages.” CNN.  Cable News Network, March 2, 2018.  Web.

Child Domestic Workers: Evidence from West and Central Africa

This paper focuses on domestic servitude in West Africa - often at the homes of relatives in kinship situations.  24 pages.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Dr. Dorte Thorsen. Child Domestic Workers | Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar-Yoff: UNICEF, April 2012.

The Law, Child Trafficking and Orphanages

This article explains how the tourism industry and tourists may unknowingly cross paths with orphanages and thus human trafficking.  [TAGS: learning objectives 1, 2; discussion questions 1, 2, 3]

Harold Goodwin.  “The Law, Child Trafficking and Orphanages.” wtm®.  Reed Exhibitions, February 16, 2016.  Web.
Secondary Resources

Reality TV

  1.  “How the Bachelor in Paradise Scandal Could Change Reality TV for Good” investigates the issue of sexual consent for actors in reality TV shows like The Bachelor.  Author: Jessica Meiselman.  Source: Vanity Fair.  Published: June 20, 2017.

  2.  “Do children ever belong on reality TV?” is a TODAY article discussing the behavioral consequences for child actors being on reality TV shows and whether children should be allowed on these shows at all.  Author: Randee Dawn.  Source: TODAY website.  Published: September 19, 2011. 

Marriage

  1.  “2 Paths for Yemen’s War-Scarred Children: Combat, or Marriage:” This article describes the reality of girls being trafficked into marriage as a result of the desperation and conflict in Yemen.  Author: Nour Yousseff.  Source: The New York Times.  Published: October 9, 2017.

Child Domestic Workers

  1.  Beyond Borders helps people build movements to liberate themselves from oppression and isolation.  In Haiti and the United States, the organization is bringing people together for just and lasting change.